Dr. Hubert Danso, Chair, African Green Infrastructure Investment Bank (AfGIIB)

As we stand on the brink of a green industrial revolution, the economic landscape is poised for unprecedented transformation. The adoption of sustainable technologies and practices is not only a response to the urgent climate crisis but also a catalyst for extraordinary economic growth. The significant investments in green technology and infrastructure are accelerating the global economy towards a historic milestone: a quintillion-dollar valuation.

Current Economic Context

The global economy is currently valued at approximately $100 trillion. Historically, the economy has grown tenfold roughly every 50 years, driven by innovation, industrialization, and globalization. As we project forward, this growth trajectory places us on a path to potentially reach $1 quadrillion by 2070-2080, assuming a consistent annual growth rate of 5%.

The International Monetary Fund (IMF) projects a global economic growth rate of approximately 3-4% annually in the short to medium term. However, as emerging markets continue to develop and advanced economies recover from recent downturns, there’s potential for this rate to increase.


Accelerating Growth with Green Investments

However, the green industrial revolution introduces a powerful accelerant into this equation. Massive investments in renewable energy, electric vehicles, sustainable agriculture, and other green technologies are expected to drive economic growth at an even faster pace. Here’s how:

  1. Increased Capital Flows: Investments in green technologies are attracting trillions of dollars from both the public and private sectors. Governments, corporations, and investors worldwide are committing significant capital to fund the transition to a sustainable economy. According to the IMF, global investments in renewable energy alone could exceed $2 trillion annually by 2030.
  2. Innovation and Efficiency: Green technologies are fostering innovation, improving efficiency, and reducing costs. This enhances productivity across various sectors, contributing to overall economic growth. The IMF notes that advancements in technology could increase global GDP by 7% by 2030.
  3. Job Creation: The green sector is a major driver of job creation, providing employment opportunities in new and existing industries. This boosts income levels and stimulates consumer spending, further propelling economic expansion. According to the IMF, the transition to a green economy could create up to 24 million new jobs worldwide by 2030.
  4. Resilience and Sustainability: Sustainable practices reduce environmental risks and resource depletion, ensuring long-term economic stability and resilience. This mitigates the adverse impacts of climate change on economic activities.

The Trillions-to-Quintillions Economy

Given the aggressive doubling rate of the economy, which can be accelerated through green investments, the timeline to reach a quintillion-dollar global economy could be significantly shortened:

  • Current Growth Rate: Without the green revolution, the global economy might reach $1 quadrillion by 2070-2080.
  • Accelerated Growth Rate: With the green industrial revolution, the global economy could potentially reach this milestone much earlier, potentially by 2060-2070.
  • Long-Term Projection: The sustained and amplified growth driven by green investments could see the global economy approaching a quintillion-dollar valuation around 2080-2100, rather than the initial estimate of 2120.

Path to a Quintillion-Dollar Economy

  1. Current Global Economy Size
    The global economy is currently conservatively estimated to be around $100 trillion.
  2. Projected Growth to Reach a Quadrillion
    • Growth Rate: If we assume the global economy grows at an average annual rate of 5%, it would take approximately 50 years to grow tenfold.
    • Time to Quadrillion: Thus, the global economy might reach $1 quadrillion around 2070-2080, depending on the exact growth rate and economic conditions.
  3. Doubling of Money Supply
    • Doubling Every 5-10 Years: Assuming an aggressive doubling rate every 5 years due to economic growth and inflation (not solely money printing), this aligns with higher inflation rates and economic growth.
    • Exponent Calculation: If the global economy grows at a rate where it doubles approximately every 5 years, this will use the formula \( P = P_0 \times (1 + r)^t \), where \( r \) is the growth rate and \( t \) is time.
  4. Growth Projection Using Exponents
    • Doubling Period: Doubling every 5 years means a growth factor of 2 every 5 years.
    • Exponential Growth: Using \( 2^{\frac{\text{years}}{5}} \):
      • In 50 years: \( 2^{10} = 1024 \)
      • A $100 trillion economy growing by this factor would reach around $102.4 quadrillion in 50 years.
  5. Long-Term Projections (Quintillion)
    Exponential Growth to Quintillion:
    Using the same formula:

    • \( 2^{20} = 1,048,576 \)
    • Thus, the global economy could reach a quintillion (1,000,000,000,000,000) dollars in about 100 years (around 2120) if it continues doubling every 5 years.


  1. 2030 Projection: By 2030, if growth is steady, the global economy will likely be significantly larger but not near a quadrillion yet.
  2. 2070-2080 Projection: The global economy might reach a quadrillion dollars by 2070-2080, assuming consistent high growth.
  3. 2080 Projection: A quintillion valuation could be reached around 2080-2120, depending on growth rates.

In Conclusion

The green industrial revolution is not merely an environmental imperative but an investable mega-trend and robust economic strategy. By driving substantial investments in green technologies, we are setting the stage for accelerated, inclusive, and resilient economic growth, leading to a faster attainment of monumental economic and sustainability milestones. This investment mega-trend is a pivotal force in today’s multipolar global economy, shaping a just, sustainable, inclusive, and prosperous economic future, making the quintillion-dollar economy an attainable reality within this century.


1. IMF Economic Outlook, April 2024
2. IMF World Economic Outlook, October 2023
3. IMF Renewable Energy Investment Report, 2024
4. IMF Technological Advancements and Global GDP Growth, 2023
5. IMF Green Jobs Report, 2024

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